It is difficult to assess accurately human dietary exposure to benzene because benzene concentration in foods varies greatly [35]. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration tested 100 beverages available in the United States that contained both ascorbic acid and benzoate. On the other hand, only 4 ng/g of benzene per gram of solution formed in models stored in the dark and at room temperature for 20 hours. Not much information is available on smoking, except for a study that found benzene concentrations of 21 and 121 parts per billion (ppb) in smoked meats [8, 18]. They act through many different mechanisms, such as by scavenging metal ions or reactive species, and by donating a hydrogen atom to stabilize these species. It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. Uses of Benzene Hexachloride Benzene hexachloride and isomers are used in various fields. There are no legal limits for benzene in foods or beverages. The lethal oral dose of benzene for humans is 125 mg/kg. This article contains information about the occurrence of benzene in the environment and the sources of exposure to this compound. 2. Benzene contamination of various foods is presented based on other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and natural sources of toluene include crude oil and small quantities it is found in tolu tree.Toluene alternative names include methylbenzene, toluol, anisen, phenyl methane. X.-L. Cao, V. Casey, S. Seaman, B. Tague, and A. Becalski, “Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, G. A. Perfetti, T. P. Mcneal, M. H. Hiatt, and K. M. Morehouse, “Survey results of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”. Benzoates are common preservatives sometimes added to beverages to prevent bacterial growth. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. According to carcinogenicity studies in rats, the reference value of benzene inhalation is 0.01 mg/L for an upper-bound excess lifetime risk of leukemia of 10−5 [38]. Nyman et al. A. Becalski, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. Benzene is a sweet-smelling, colorless and flammable liquid. Where Benzene Exposures Are Coming From. Either Health Canada or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency gathers samples of the food and analyses them to measure the levels of contaminant. Calcium and other minerals present in food, especially beverages, may compete with copper and/or iron ions for EDTA, reducing EDTA’s ability to prevent benzene formation. Benzene formation was greater in samples heated to 40°C than in those exposed to UV or visible light. It is also found in crude oil, petrol and cigarette smoke. Benzene may be introduced in foods during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and ionizing radiation [17]. It also contains the Alert, Information and Upper and Lower Assessment thresholds for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, … Benzene formation was greatest ( μg/kg−1) in the model containing riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and Cu(II) ions in a solution buffered with sodium citrate and exposed to light. Current data, however, is insufficient to indicate reliably whether benzene is formed as result in the interaction of ascorbic and benzoic acids in common products. The largest source of benzene to households in the above-mentioned populations is natural gas development and petroleum refining. Transition metals, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III), may catalyze the transfer of one electron from ascorbic acid to oxygen, producing the radical superoxide, which then undergoes spontaneous dismutation to form hydrogen peroxide. At a temperature of 25°C and reaction time of 15 minutes, benzene did not form in the absence of ascorbic acid or hydrogen peroxide. A. Becalski, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. Benzene is a chemical that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil. Benzene formation increased linearly with hydrogen peroxyde concentration, until the ascorbic acid concentration was exceeded. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Benzoic acid has low solubility in normal temperatures [25]. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles stabilized with Tinuvin (UV light filter) were used to determine how well this UV light filter inhibits benzene formation. Inhalation is the most common route of exposure to benzene but only 50% of the inhaled benzene is absorbed, while 100% of the benzene in foods and beverages is absorbed. Article 2(1) states that, “Whenever harmless or less harmful substitute products are available, they shall be used instead of benzene or products containing benzene.” D. W. Lachenmeier, N. Steinbrenner, S. Löbell-Behrends, H. Reusch, and T. Kuballa, “Benzene contamination in heat-treated carrot products including baby foods,”, Q. Yang, Y. Guo, L. Wang, S. Liang, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous determination of trace benzene and toluene in beverage by ultrasound-enhanced hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with GC,”, G. Bonaccorsi, A. Perico, A. Colzi et al., “Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy),”, I. Techakriengkrai and C. Lertborwornwong, “The analysis of benzene contaminant in Thai commercial non-alcoholic beverages by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry,”. (ix)Check the product storage conditions since strong light and high temperatures speed up the formation of free radicals. (viii)Consider removing, reducing, or replacing ascorbates with other antioxidants. Toluene is produced during the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil, in making coke from coal, and as a by-product in the manufacture of styrene. [37] used the margin of exposure (MoE) to calculate the exposure of children to benzene in carrot juice and found that there was no reason to avoid the occasional consumption of this beverage; however, one must bear in mind that this is not the only source of benzene exposure and that benzene tends to accumulate in the human body. Moving on, Benzene has a lot of uses in different fields. 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