An example of the affect factors such as leading questions can have on eyewitness testimonies is the … In over 300 cases, the eyewitness testimony was the sole “evidence” used in conviction. Evaluation: This is a weakness because the studying can be seen to be breaching the BPS guidelines as Loftus hasn’t protected her participants from harm – such a scene may cause the participant a great deal of distress. Procedure:eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',111,'0','0'])); Those who had witness the man holding a pen correctly identified the target 49% of the time, compared to those who had witness the man holding a knife, who correctly identified the target 33% of the time. The knife became the central detail and was what the participants focussed on and the man’s face became the peripheral detail, which meant that it was unlikely that it would be remembered accurately. Mark Maldonado There isn’t a simple relationship between emotional arousal and the accuracy of EWT. One of the key findings is that EWT is often inaccurate and is affected by various factors; one being age. Eyewitness testimony can be unreliable due to conditions at the scene of a crime, memory “contamination” and misrepresentation during trial. We review major developments in the experimental literature concerning the way that various factors relate to the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Both of these models propose that memory is a complex phenomenon that must go... ...Should eyewitness testimony be used as evidence in a court of law? Description, AO1 – Research into factors (anxiety) affecting the accuracy of EWT: Loftus (1979), This study aimed to investigate effect of anxiety levels on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. Although, eyewitness are relied on frequently there is strong research to suggest it isn’t as reliable as we may think. ... (12 marks)“Outline and evaluate research into how anxiety effects eye witness testimony” (12 marks) Post-event discussion. Witnesses are particularly inaccurate, studies show, when asked to remember the facial features of someone of... ...Outline and evaluate research into how anxiety affects eye witness testimony Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of EWT Description, AO1 – Anxiety and EWT: There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). There is an organization called the Innocence One piece of research that has explored factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, comes from Loftus and Palmer (1974). Eye witness testimonies are affected by a number of factors, but the one that I am going to focus on is anxiety. We've all experienced, at one time or another, our own memories failing us at times, and this may have been due to a number of factors. During the acquisition process, there are a number of factors that can affect an eyewitness’ report of an event. 2004) they placed 500 After 48 hours of being deprived of food and RUNNING HEAD: Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitness testimony is the account a bystander gives in the courtroom, describing what they perceived happened during the specific incident under investigation. Objectives: To be able to outline factors affecting eyewitness testimony including leading questions. Outline and evaluate leading questions and post-event discussion as factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (16 marks) Describe: Leading questions are phrased in a way that influences/prompts a certain response Research: Two conditions shown the same video. * Deffenbacher – MA of studies found considerable support for a negative correlation between anxiety and EWT meaning the more anxious the less accurate their testimonies were. The participants were later asked to pick out the person they saw leave the room with the knife/pen from 50 photographs. taking inquiries and many more. Outline And Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. Eye witness testimony is a legal term for evidence which is supplied by people who witness a specific event and then have to rely on their memory to recall the situation as best as they can. Using trial simulation methods, research demonstrates that jurors are often insensitive to the factors that are known to influence eyewitness memory: stress experienced by the witness, weapon focus, and the influence of suggestive identification procedures. Half of them were threatened with physical harm and Ashleigh Precoma harm), 76% were right. This can be divided into event factors and witness factors. Loftus believed that the anxiety caused by the weapon (i.e., blood –stained knife) narrowed the focus of attention for the witness and took attention away from the face of the man – therefore making their recall (EWT) less detailed and less accurate. 04 Identify three variables affecting conformity and outline how eachof these was investigated in Asch’s experiment. Perhaps the issue at hand was not important to us at the time, and Furthermore, jurors tend to rely on factors that are known not to strongly predict identification accuracy. Eye witness testimonies are the evidence given in court or in police investigation by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident. This is solely because human memory is fragile and malleable. Evidence: For example, participants in condition 2 witnessed quite a disturbing scene – the confederate leaving the office holding the blood stained knife. Majo PS280 Psychology and the law Evaluation: This is positive because it is further evidence that high levels of anxiety can result in a false eyewitness testimony, as found in Loftus’ research, supporting the theory that anxiety affects EWT accuracy. One factor that is thought to have a significant effect on eyewitness memory is the degree of emotional arousal or stress experienced by the witness during the crime. A key factor is the use of misleading information (information that suggests a desired response), especially in the form of leading questions and post-event discussion. However this study lacked mundane realism. This recollection is used as evidence to show what happened from a witness' point of view. ... identify three factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness information incompletely or inaccurately (Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, &McGorty, 2004). face acknowledgment in other races. Evidence: For example, Christianson and Hubinette (1993) studied the recall of witnesses to real bank robberies. Condition 1 heard what they believed to be an amicable discussion about equipment failure, after which a man came out with greasy hands, holding a pen. * Loftus et al... ...Eyewitness Testimony 1 They asked participants to estimate the speed of two cars, changing cues provided in the question. Evidence: Deffenbacher et al concluded from meta-analysis that anxiety levels that are too low or too high negatively affect EWT accuracy suggesting that eyewitness testimony is impaired if a person becomes too anxious. The significance of eyewitness testimony was highlighted in this report and resulted in much more research being undertaken. Eyewitness Testimony Eye witness testimony (EWT) is regularly a deciding factor for courts in the criminal justice system to ‘prove’ the guilt or innocence of the criminally accused. “Eyewitness testimony is so unreliable that it should never be used in convicting criminals”. Outline and evaluate how retrieval failure due to the absence of cues leads to forgetting (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level) Factors affecting eyewitness testimony. * Christianson and Hubinnette questioned real witnesses to robberies and compared those who were involved (a hostage etc) to those that were not involved (onlookers) and found those that were involved and therefore had higher anxiety had better recall than those that just witnessed it. military members in a mock prisoner of war camp. Moreover the participants were awaiting for something to happen to therefore you result in demand characteristics. Laboratory studies and some ‘real life’ studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed particularly distressing or anxiety induced situations. However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: Anxiety / Stress There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). Loftus and palmer were interested in seeing how misleading questions affected eyewitness testimony, they conducted a lab experiment in which 45 students were shown films of traffic accidents, they were then asked a question about how fast the car was going, students were either given the verb hit, smashed, contacted, collided or bumped. Some witnesses has seen the incident close, while some from further away. Considerable research has addressed how jurors evaluate eyewitness memory and whether their evaluations can be improved. The man then emerged from the laboratory holding a knife covered in blood. * Unpleasant emotional state where we fear that something bad is about to happen usually accompanied by physiological arousal (pumping heart) In a military study on highly stressful interrogations (Morgan et al. Laughery et al (1971) tested subjects on their recall based on the exposure time to a picture, showed one at a time of different positions of a human face. Two Caucasian male tar… Why are so many eyewitnesses mistaken? If PsychBoost is helping in your studies, consider https://www.patreon.com/psychboost - I'm making A-level psych perks for patreons! The findings from this study were that those who were closer gave a more accurate account, and those who were closest provided more detail. Also they tested students who may be better at recalling information rather than someone much older which shows low population validity. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT. Investigated how misleading information can alter memory post event. This shows that in real life eyewitness testimony anxiety can heighten the accuracy of recall (Christian and Hubbinette, 1993) whereas Loftus (1979) suggested that anxiety particularly posed by a weapon may decrease recall accuracy. Some Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects in the U.S., and studies suggest that as many as a third of them are wrong. Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. Deffenbacher (1983) was one of the first to investigate the link between anxiety and EWT and after reviewing 21 studies, he found that accuracy is poor when emotional arousal is either high or low, but is better under conditions of moderate arousal. In condition 2, the participants heard a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture. Loftus then supplied participants with 50 photos and asked them to identify the man who had come out of the room. Refers to the use of eye or ear witnesses in court or in police statements about the identity of someone who has committed a crime. Misleading information is where a person may be asked a question to either provoke a specific answer or lead the witness to an out of context situation. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. The guilt or innocence of people is often decided on the accuracy of the memories of eyewitnesses. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWTeval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',112,'0','0'])); (1) Point: Further research from Deffenbacher et al (1983) supports the suggestion that anxiety affects the accuracy of EWT. Among those who were under moderate stress (not threatened with physical A study showing the effect of age on EWT was carried out by Flin et al, he asked children and adults the same questions about an incident they had witnessed, one day after the event and then again after five … ...The Inconsistency of I have the AO1 bit down - I have written about studies by Flin et al. There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, ... the individual believes that the post-event information is in fact the original memory and falsely report this during testimony questioning. I.e. Research into eye witness testimonies being affected by anxiety is mixed and It is believed that eye witness testimony is most accurate when the anxiety level is somewhere in between low and high anxiety. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. Innocent people are mistaken far more often that people think. The term ‘eye witness testimony' refers to the of exploration into the accuracy and reliability of storage concerning significant events, ... Outline and Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Essay. This information is then delivered by the bystander in a courtroom, where the jury must pay special attention and may even come to a decision based on this, somewhat reliable piece of evidence. Yuille and Cutshall interviewed people who had witnessed a real life shooting and found that recall was very accurate despite high levels of anxiety, however, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened. expert testimony is based on ‘a reliable body of knowledge or experience’.15 Combining both these empirical and legal questions, we argue that the categorical rejection of all expert evidence on the credibility and reliability of witness testimony is not justified, but nor is … ...Eye Witness Testimony The weapon focus effect phenomenon as identified by Loftus 1979, she asked participants to sit outside a laboratory where they thought they were hearing a genuine exchange between people inside the laboratory. It refers to; an account given by person(s) of an event they’ve witnessed. Eye witness testimonies are accounts from witnesses to a crime or accident given as evidence in a court or to the police. convicted. * Weapon Focus Effect However, inaccuracies in EWT are common, accounting for about 75% of incorrect convictions later found to be innocent using DNA evidence. In the control condition, participants heard an amicable discussion about an equipment failure, a man then appeared from the room with greasy hands holding a pen. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Identification . Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Research regularly shows that EWT is affecting by experiences occuring after a witnessed event. There has been a vast amount of interest into eyewitness testimony (EWT). This study did not lack mundane realism as the participants were real witnesses. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology Pages: 7 (1574 words) Outline and evaluate the behavioural approach to abnormality Pages: 3 (550 words) The Cognitive Interview and Eyewitness Credibility Pages: 7 (1544 words) However, misleading information in the real world can come from other sources, for example other witnesses (co-witnesses), when they discuss the details of a crime of accident, following an incident. However you could criticise the Loftus and Palmers study and claim that it was not done in a real life situation so it may not have had the same impact as maybe a real life accident may have had as many may have not been emotionally effective. PSHYCHOLOGY OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF EWT( EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY) One of the most important practical applications of memory research involves EWT (eyewitness testimony). Laboratory based studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed unpleasant or anxiety-inducing situations (e.g., research by Loftus). One source of misleading information comes from leading questions. identified. ... Factors affecting accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony - Duration: 27:04. Cognitive psychologists believe that under stressful situations a person can encode the Exposure time to the event or object of focus is an event factor. Accuracy was better for group 1 showing that attention is drawn to the weapon thus decreasing the accuracy of EWT. In 1976, the Devlin report examined over 2000 identity parades in the U.K. Of the 2000 parades, 45% resulted in a suspect being identified and out of these, 82% were eventually convicted of a crime. More than 2,000 studies on eyewitnesses in recent decades have determined that recollections are prone to decay, distortion, and suggestion. After one day they were asked to identify their interrogator’s from an Memory recall has been considered a credible source in the past, but has recently come under attack as forensics can now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; being easily manipulated, altered, and biased. Factors that Influence EWT Factors which can influence EWT are; misleading questions, post event information, emotional arousal, stress, cognitive interview, weapon focus effect and age. Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. Cohen describes “erroneous eyewitness testimony” as being the “leading cause of wrongful conviction”. (1) Point: Research has contradicted Loftus’ study suggesting that anxiety can improve the accuracy of EWT. In the experimental condition, participants were subject to a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture, a man then emerged from the room holding a knife covered in blood. eyewitness’s do make mistakes on identifying someone and causes that person to be wrongfully Loftus and Palmer were interested to see how something as simple as a misleading question affected those who were taken as eyewitnesses. Discuss Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony Essay Sample. By: Megan Hong Key Study into EWT – Please join StudyMode to read the full document. But only 34% of those that WERE threatened with physical harm (high An illustration of the affect factors such as prima inquiries can hold on eyewitness testimonies is … Eyewitness Testimony 2 Project that stated 75% of the 218 people exonerated on the basis of DNA were mistakenly ...Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eye witness testimony. There are factors that affect the truth of eyewitness testimony such as emotions. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony (12 marks) I don't really know what to write for this question. ‘Outline and evaluate research into eyewitness testimony.’ ... one of the main factors is the role of anxiety. This section of the essay will evaluate the effect of these factors on the reliability of eyewitness testimony. eight picture line-up. Evaluation: This is a weakness as it goes against Loftus’ finding that anxiety reduces EWT accuracy and suggests that anxiety-creating situations don’t always divert attention from important features of the situation.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-box-4','ezslot_3',113,'0','0'])); (2) Point: Loftus’s study can be criticised as being unethical. I just have no idea what to write for AO2! Ideally this recollection of events is detailed; however this is not always the case. They can often be misled when asked the questions. They found that increased arousal led to improvements in the accuracy of recall. ...Eye Witness Testimony Outline and evaluate the research into eyewitness testimony. 74% of these 300 cases resulted in criminal convictions. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety. Grantham University Outline and evaluate research into the effects of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Abstract . In lieu of an abstract, below is the article's first paragraph. One of the most widely known studies into anxiety affecting eyewitness testimony is Loftus’ study to find out if anxiety during a witnessed incident affects the accuracy of later identification. 6 AO1 marks would come from a description of relevant research studies. 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